An expert explains if you should worry about your Christmas pleasures: ScienceAlert

The holidays are often called the “silly season” – a time when we eat, drink and rejoice. But those holiday indulgences can lead to feelings of guilt and fear that we’ve undone all the healthy habits of the rest of the year.

But how much do you really need to worry about the impacts of overeating on vacation?

Yes, weight gain can happen during the holidays

There are studies that show weight gain can and does happen during silly season. But on average, it’s not as dramatic as the diet culture would have us believe, at around 0.7 kilograms (1.5 pounds).

However, because humans are complex and varied, and the science of nutrition is difficult, there are studies with varying results. Some show that despite significant increases in overall energy intake and reductions in diet quality, weight gain does not occur.

Importantly, much of this research comes from the northern hemisphere where major holidays coincide with winter. And these studies focus on weight, not health. Weight is just an easy marker to measure, but health is more complicated.

Food is not just fuel

Food is not just energy and nutrients. It is an integral part of our cultures and celebrations and contributes to social, cultural and emotional well-being.

Although harder to study, feeding our souls with foods that connect us to loved ones and traditions is just as important as the role food plays in nourishing our bodies.

The end-of-year celebrations are also an opportunity to share meals. Sharing meals contributes to our emotional well-being and happiness.

Say hello to homeostasis

Homeostasis is a scientific term that describes how systems regulate themselves. The word comes from the ancient Greek words for “similar” and “stable”.

In living things, this means that biology can adapt to changes to keep things in their normal constant state. Essentially, our bodies are always making small, constant biological changes to help things stay the same. It’s how we regulate things like our body temperature, blood sugar, blood pressure, and other systems important for survival.

The principles of homeostasis also apply to our diet and our metabolism. If we eat more during a festive day or two (or even weeks), our biology works to minimize the impacts.

It’s also why losing weight on restrictive diets can be difficult – homeostasis means that when we reduce our energy intake, our body adapts to less energy consumption.

Thus, for most people, discrete periods of indulgence are unlikely to be the primary determinants of health outcomes. The patterns we follow most of the time are more likely to influence our long-term health.

It’s a matter of balance

Biology and social norms mean that restrictive diets are difficult to sustain over the long term. Some people do better at maintaining a balanced diet when drinking is allowed.

And now science has helped you relax a bit, a few words of caution.

Drink with moderation

Overconsumption of alcohol can lead to an increased risk of chronic diseases.

Excessive alcohol consumption during the holiday season increases the risk of alcohol-related harm, including accidents and violence.

Staying hydrated by alternating with soft drinks helps reduce the amount of alcohol you drink and the severity of a hangover, but it won’t eliminate the risk.

Food security risks

Festive meals, with sharing, traveling and overloaded fridges increase our risk of food poisoning. Summer holidays also bring an additional risk of heat.

You want to share food and joy, not germs, so remember your basic food safety rules like hand washing, avoiding cross-contamination of meats and other uncooked foods, keeping food cold cool and heat them well.

It’s also a good idea to make sure you talk to your guests or hosts about food allergens to make sure everyone is having a safe holiday treat.

The bottom line

What we eat is a big part of determining our health, but adding a helping of guilt to your festive feast isn’t healthy either.

For truly healthy choices, focus on balance and moderation for most of the year and for most of your choices, but social and cultural eating is part of the balance.

Savoring your celebratory foods doesn’t have to mean throwing away all your healthy habits, but healthy eating and healthy indulgence can co-exist if we let it.The conversation

Emma Beckett, Senior Lecturer (Food Science and Human Nutrition), School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

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