People with a low outlook for the future are more likely to engage in bedtime procrastination

New research sheds light on the psychological mechanisms that help explain why being more future-oriented is associated with reduced bedtime procrastination. The findings, published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Healthindicate that a person’s outlook on time is related to their ability to control their impulses and stay focused on long-term interests.

The study was based on the theory of temporal self-regulation, which suggests that people are more likely to engage in goal-directed behavior when they have a strong future temporal perspective. It means that they believe that their future selves will be better off as a result of their present actions.

Individuals with a low future time perspective, on the other hand, are less likely to engage in goal-oriented behavior. They may be more likely to procrastinate or abandon their goals when faced with difficulties.

The study involved 3,687 Chinese students from six different provinces. The sample was aged 11 to 23, with an average age of around 16.

Students completed a Chinese version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, a validated self-assessment questionnaire that measures future time perspective. They also completed assessments of problematic smartphone use, bedtime procrastination, and self-control/impulsivity.

Researchers found that more forward-looking students tended to exhibit higher levels of self-control and lower levels of impulsivity, which in turn was associated with reduced bedtime procrastination. Lower levels of impulsivity were also associated with less problematic smartphone use, and less problematic smartphone use was associated with reduced bedtime procrastination.

The results support the hypothesis that being more forward-looking is associated with better outcomes as it is linked to improved self-regulatory processes.

“Forward-looking individuals have higher expected value for long-term beneficial goals and are more aware of the value of regular sleep to their health and function,” the researchers wrote. results and see themselves as moving from the present moment into the future, which makes the link between the present and the future closer. Thus, the higher nominal value and perceived temporal proximity of sleep prompted individuals with higher temporal perspective to have stronger sleep intentions and to go to bed on time.

The study, “Future Time Perspective and Bedtime Procrastination: The Mediating Role of Dual-Mode Self-Control and Problematic Smartphone Use,” was authored by Bo Mao, Shuai Chen, Mingchen Wei, Yali Luo, and Yanling Liu.

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